Section 7 - Alkynes

Alkynes -- Section 7 of Organic Chemistry Notes is 12 pages in length (page 7-1 through page 7-12) and covers ALL you'll need to know on the following lecture/book topics:

SECTION 7 – Alkynes

7-1 -- Definition, Bond Length, and BDE of Alkynes
7-1 -- Alkyne Nomenclature

  · “-yne” Ending
  · Alkenynes – Compounds Having Both Double Bonds and Triple Bonds
  · Alkynl Substituents (Branches)
7-2 -- Stabilities of Alkynes
  · Alkyl Groups (-R) Stabilize Triple Bonds
  · Terminal Alkynes vs. Internal Alkynes
  · Cycloalkynes
7-3 -- Hydration of Alkynes
  · Markovnikov Addition of H2O
  · Tautomerization
  · Use of Hg2+ as a Catalyst
7-5 -- Addition of HX Across the Triple Bond
  · Markovnikov Regiochemistry
  · The –H and –X Add Trans
  · Two Consecutive Markovnikov Additions of HX are Observed
7-5 -- Addition of X2 Across the Triple Bond
  · X2 = Cl2 or Br2
  · Mixtures of Products (Cis and Trans)
7-6 -- Hydroboration
  · Non-Markovnikov Addition of H2O
  · Internal Alkynes vs. Terminal Alkynes
  · Internal Alkynes and Increased Steric Hindrance
  · Terminal Alkynes and Use of Disiamyl Borane
  · Tautomerization is Observed
7-7 -- Addition of H2 Across a Triple Bond – 2 Ways
  · Catalytic Hydrogenation
  · Use of the “Lindlar Catalyst”
  · Syn-Addition Gives Cis Product (Catalytic Hydrogenation)
  · Reduction of Alkynes with Li (or Na) in NH3(l)
  · Anti-Addition Gives Trans Product (Reduction Reaction)
7-8 -- Alkylation of Terminal Alkynes
  · The “Acetylide Ion” as a Nucleophile
  · pKA of Alkynes
  · Use of Sodamide (NaNH2)
7-10 -- Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes
  · Zn(Cu) = “Zn-Cu” Couple
  · Formation of 2 Carboxylic Acids

  · Use of KMnO4 and H3O+
7-10 -- Synthesis of Organic Compounds
  · “Working Backwards” When Given a Final Product to Synthesize
7-11 -- Retrosynthetic Analysis

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