Section 12 - NMR Spectroscopy

NMR Spectroscopy -- Section 12 of Organic Chemistry Notes is 18 pages in length (page 12-1 through page 12-18) and covers ALL you'll need to know on the following lecture/book topics:

SECTION 12 - NMR Spectroscopy

12-1 -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
  · 1H NMR and 13C NMR
12-1 -- 1H NMR
  · Alpha Spin-State and Beta Spin-State
  · Magnetic Field (Ho)
  · Spin Flips (alpha --> beta)
  · Shielding (Hp Ξ Ho)
12-3 -- A Sample NMR Spectrum
  · Use of Tetramethyl Silane (TMS)
  · ppm Scale
  · “Downfield” vs. “Upfield”
  · delta-Values and Chemical Shifts
12-4 -- Characteristic Chemical Shifts for Various Functional Groups
12-5 -- 6 Factors That Allow Us to Understand 1H NMR
12-6 -- Relative Areas Under NMR Absorption Peaks

  · Electronic Integration
  · Integral Step Heighths
12-6 -- Spin-Spin Splitting (Coupling)
  · Relative Intensities of NMR Absorption Peaks
  · Pascal’s Triangle and Multiplets
  · Singlet, Doublet, Triplet, Quartet, etc.
  · The Coupling Constant (J)
  · Equivalent Protons Do Not Couple
  · Cyclohexane: Axial-H’s vs. Equatorial-H’s
12-11 -- Alcohols and NMR
  · Alcohol Proton (1H) is a Very Broad Singlet
  · D2O Exchange Identifies the Alcohol Proton in 1H NMR
12-12 -- Complex Splitting in NMR
  · Vinylic Coupling
  · Use of Tree Diagrams
  · J(geminal)
  · J(trans) vs. J(cis)
  · What’s a “Doublet of Doublets”?
12-13 -- The Effect of Cyclohexane Conformation on Coupling
  · Coupling Constant (J) Depends on the Dihedral Angle (Sigma)
  · Karplus Curve
12-14 -- "Types” of Coupling
  · Vicinal Coupling (3-Bond Couplings)
  · Geminal Coupling (2-Bond Couplings)
  · Long-Range Coupling (Greater Than 3-Bond Couplings)
12-15 -- 1H NMR and Dynamic Effects
  · Deuterated Cyclohexane (C6D11H)
  · Ring-Flip at Room Temperature (25°C)
  · Cooling to Slow Down the Ring-Flip
12-16 -- 13C NMR
  · Typical Absorption Ranges (0ppm – 250ppm)
  · 13C Chemical Shifts for Various Functional Groups
  · Proton-Decoupled 13C NMR (“Normal Spectrum”)
  · Off-Resonance Decoupling (“Spin-Coupled Mode”)
  · Singlets, Doublets, Triplets, Quartets

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