Reactions and Synthesis of Alkenes

Alkynes -- Section 7 of Organic Chemistry Notes is 12 pages in length (page 7-1 through page 7-12) and covers ALL you'll need to know about the following lecture/book topics:

SECTION 7 – Alkynes

7-1 -- Definition, Bond Length, and BDE of Alkynes
7-1 -- Alkyne Nomenclature

_· “-yne” Ending
_· Alkenynes – Compounds Having Both Double Bonds and Triple Bonds
_· Alkynl Substituents (Branches)
7-2 -- Stabilities of Alkynes
_· Alkyl Groups (-R) Stabilize Triple Bonds
_· Terminal Alkynes vs. Internal Alkynes
_· Cycloalkynes
7-3 -- Hydration of Alkynes
_· Markovnikov Addition of H2O
_· Tautomerization
_· Use of Hg2+ as a Catalyst
7-5 -- Addition of HX Across the Triple Bond
_· Markovnikov Regiochemistry
_· The –H and –X Add Trans
_· Two Consecutive Markovnikov Additions of HX are Observed
7-5 -- Addition of X2 Across the Triple Bond
_· X2 = Cl2 or Br2
_· Mixtures of Products (Cis and Trans)
7-6 -- Hydroboration
_· Non-Markovnikov Addition of H2O
_· Internal Alkynes vs. Terminal Alkynes
_· Internal Alkynes and Increased Steric Hindrance
_· Terminal Alkynes and Use of Disiamyl Borane
_· Tautomerization is Observed
7-7 -- Addition of H2 Across a Triple Bond – 2 Ways
_· Catalytic Hydrogenation
_· Use of the “Lindlar Catalyst”
_· Syn-Addition Gives Cis Product (Catalytic Hydrogenation)
_· Reduction of Alkynes with Li (or Na) in NH3(l)
_· Anti-Addition Gives Trans Product (Reduction Reaction)
7-8 -- Alkylation of Terminal Alkynes
_· The “Acetylide Ion” as a Nucleophile
_· pKA of Alkynes
_· Use of Sodamide (NaNH2)
7-10 -- Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes
_· Zn(Cu) = “Zn-Cu” Couple
_· Formation of 2 Carboxylic Acids
_· Use of KMnO4 and H3O+
7-10 -- Synthesis of Organic Compounds
_· “Working Backwards” When Given a Final Product to Synthesize
7-11 -- Retrosynthetic Analysis

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