NMR Spectroscopy

NMR Spectroscopy -- Section 12 of Organic Chemistry Notes is 18 pages in length (page 12-1 through page 12-18) and covers ALL you'll need to know about the following lecture/book topics:

SECTION 12 - NMR Spectroscopy

12-1 -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
_· 1H NMR and 13C NMR
12-1 -- 1H NMR
_· Alpha Spin-State and Beta Spin-State
_· Magnetic Field (Ho)
_· Spin Flips (alpha --> beta)
_· Shielding (Hp Ξ Ho)
12-3 -- A Sample NMR Spectrum
_· Use of Tetramethyl Silane (TMS)
_· ppm Scale
_· “Downfield” vs. “Upfield”
_· delta-Values and Chemical Shifts
12-4 -- Characteristic Chemical Shifts for Various Functional Groups
12-5 -- 6 Factors That Allow Us to Understand 1H NMR
12-6 -- Relative Areas Under NMR Absorption Peaks

_· Electronic Integration
_· Integral Step Heighths
12-6 -- Spin-Spin Splitting (Coupling)
_· Relative Intensities of NMR Absorption Peaks
_· Pascal’s Triangle and Multiplets
_· Singlet, Doublet, Triplet, Quartet, etc.
_· The Coupling Constant (J)
_· Equivalent Protons Do Not Couple
_· Cyclohexane: Axial-H’s vs. Equatorial-H’s
12-11 -- Alcohols and NMR
_· Alcohol Proton (1H) is a Very Broad Singlet
_· D2O Exchange Identifies the Alcohol Proton in 1H NMR
12-12 -- Complex Splitting in NMR
_· Vinylic Coupling
_· Use of Tree Diagrams
_· J(geminal)
_· J(trans) vs. J(cis)
_· What’s a “Doublet of Doublets”?
12-13 -- The Effect of Cyclohexane Conformation on Coupling
_· Coupling Constant (J) Depends on the Dihedral Angle (Sigma)
_· Karplus Curve
12-14 -- "Types” of Coupling
_· Vicinal Coupling (3-Bond Couplings)
_· Geminal Coupling (2-Bond Couplings)
_· Long-Range Coupling (Greater Than 3-Bond Couplings)
12-15 -- 1H NMR and Dynamic Effects
_· Deuterated Cyclohexane (C6D11H)
_· Ring-Flip at Room Temperature (25°C)
_· Cooling to Slow Down the Ring-Flip
12-16 -- 13C NMR
_· Typical Absorption Ranges (0ppm – 250ppm)
_· 13C Chemical Shifts for Various Functional Groups
_· Proton-Decoupled 13C NMR (“Normal Spectrum”)
_· Off-Resonance Decoupling (“Spin-Coupled Mode”)
_· Singlets, Doublets, Triplets, Quartets

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NMR Spectroscopy

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